Film types fills have been popular with the Cooling Tower Industry as a result of their efficiency of not only handling large quantities of water but also the overall tower efficiency. However in the case of heavily contaminated water, film type fills are susceptible to accumulating deposits and often make way for the use of splash type fills for effective water cooling. The forgiving nature of splash fills towards 'dirty' water and imperfect water distribution is offset by the need to have larger towers and thus higher capital costs as well as pumping heads.
Splash fills work on the principle of causing the flowing water to fall through a grid of 'splash bars/grids' causing the water droplets to break up and increasing the contact time between water and air. As the falling water encounters multiple layers of these splash fills, the droplets keep dividing into smaller sizes thereby increasing the heat transfer and thus cool the water.